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The scene is the central registry for graphical objects and manages rendering
parameters. Among other parameters, it is used to set up the lighting, fog,
background color and the position and viewing direction of the user. The scene
is a singleton, meaning that there is only one scene available. The instance can
be accessed via
gfx.Scene(). Because the scene is so important and
commonly used, the scene is also available as the scene variable in the
interactive Python shell as well as from scripts.
Manipulating the Camera
The users’ position and orientation in the scene is specified by the camera. The camera is represented by a center, a rotation and an offset from the center. These 3 attributes can be set independently. Manipulation of the camera is done by assigning a new
Transform to the
Orbiting around a Point
The following code example will let the camera orbit around the center of the camera.
# tweakable parameters:
# - axis of rotation
# - angular step size. Making it bigger speeds up the rotation
# - number of frames
axis = geom.Vec3(0, 1, 0)
step_size = 0.01
num_frames = 100
angle = 0.0
for i in range(num_frames):
angle += step_size
if angle > math.pi*2:
angle -= math.pi*2
camera = scene.transform
rot = geom.AxisRotation(axis, angle)
camera.SetTrans(geom.Vec3(25.0, 0.0, -50))
scene.transform = camera
scene.Export('frame-%03d.png' % i, 500, 500)
It is interesting to note that the offset from center (trans) is given in rotated coordinates. Transforming along z shifts the camera along the viewing direction. Setting x and y to non-zero causes the center of the camera not to be projected onto the center of the screen any longer. For example, setting the value trans to geom.Vec3(50, 0, 0) gives a viewing direction perpendicular to the vector from the camera position to the center.
The background color of the scene. By default the background color is
The center of the scene. Read-write. Changing the center affects the
orientation of the camera, but not its position. To change the camera
transform. Also available as
The camera transformation. Read-write. For an example usage see
Orbiting around a Point. Also available as
The field of view angle (in degrees) in vertical direction. Read-write.
Also available as
Add an object to the root node of the scene. This means that
- The object will be rendered on the screen.
- The object’s bounding box affects the slabbing operations.
- obj (
GfxNode) – The object to be added.
- replace_existing (bool) – If true, existing objects of the same name are
silently replaced. If false (the default), trying to add an object with
an existing name will raise a RuntimeError.
scene observer. The new scene observer
will get notified when the scene’s state changes or objects get updated.
Enable/disable autoslabbing. If autoslabbing is enabled, the near and far
clipping planes will automatically be adjusted to contain all the objects in
the scene. This calculation is done before every redraw. Note that,
autoslabbing is not rotation invariant. See
AutoslabMax() for a
This method looks stale. Remove it?
- fast (bool) –
- force (bool) –
Adjust the near and far clipping planes in such a way that they contain the
bounding sphere of all the objects in the scene. In constrast to AutoSlab()
the near/far clipping planes calculated with
invariant to rotation.
Center the camera on the center of the obj. This does not update offset and
rotation of the camera. However, since the offset and rotation are applied
after the centering, the position and viewing direction are affected by the
change of center.
|Parameters:||obj (str, or
GfxNode) – Object, or name of the object
Export(filename, width, height[, transparent])
Renders (exports) the scene into a PNG image.
- filename (str) – The output filename
- width (int) – The width of the image. Defaults to the width of the
- height (int) – The height of the image. Defaults to the height of the OpenGL
- transparent (bool) – If true, and the background color of the scene is
transparent, will produce a transparent image. If false, the alpha
component will be set to opaque.
Export the scene to POV-Ray format. The export will generate two files, one
containing a general description of the scene, including camera position and
materials and a second containing the geometric description of the objects.
The first file will be named filename.pov, the second filename.inc.
The files will be placed in working directory
This method is highly experimental and does not work for more complex
objects. Stay tuned for updates.
- filename (str) – The base filename without file extension. .pov and .inc
will automatically be appended to te filename.
- working_dir (str) – The working directory. Defaults to the current
Get the field of view angle in the y direction (in degrees).
Looks stale. Remove it?
Remove the given object from the scene.
Remove all objects from the scene.
Renders the scene.
Request a redraw of the scene.
Resize the OpenGL context.
- width (int) – The new width
- height (int) – The new height
- arg2 (float) –
- arg3 (float) –
SetLightProp(arg2, arg3, arg4)
- arg2 (
- arg3 (
- arg4 (
Manually sets the near and far clipping planes to the given values. Before
using this method, make sure
AutoAutoslab() is disabled.
- near (float) –
- far (float) –
Apply the inverse of the current camera and perspective transformation. This
essentially gives the screen (or normalized view coordinates) of a point in
global coordinates. The inverse operations is available as
- point (
Vec3) – The point in global coordinates.
- ignore_vp (bool) – If set to false (the default), also performs the viewport
transformation. Points inside the viewing frustum will have x and y
coordinates in the range [0, width)x[0, height]. If true, the returned
coordinates will be between [-1,1]x[-1,1].
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gfx - Realtime 3D Rendering
The Graphical Entity
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